The independence

As far as the economy is concerned, New England quickly took on gigantic dimensions.
Piracy was practiced in great style in all the colonies, with the approval of the governors when it had for non-English merchant object.
But more than that was the quality of Puritan immigration to determine its economic success. In various waves starting from 1630 this brought to America not a random set of squandered, but a complete society, perhaps small but organized in all its parts. The members of the London Company carefully selected the components of the trips.
The other Englishmen who settled in the southern colonies were nothing comparable.
They thus gave rise to rich colonies but little articulated from the economic and social point of view. Their only resource was slavery: 75% of households possessed one or more slaves.
The War of Independence
The Puritans had gone to America with a very specific purpose: to have the opportunity to enrich themselves without any compulsion. So they wanted to govern themselves their goal was therefore, from the beginning, to get rid of the English crown and its governors.
The Puritans of New England realized that they could not rebel against the motherland alone, without the collaboration of the other colonies, even with their opposition.
They then devoted themselves with extreme energy to their commercial affairs but each time, when the occasion was presented, they did not forget, through their parliaments and their propaganda, to attack the crown or its governors. The goal was always to demonstrate to the other colonies how harmful the presence of the Crown was also for their possibilities of enrichment: they already had a lot, but they could have had more.
This controversy, which had been present since the beginning of 1630, was increasing as the population increased and the weakening on the North American continent of French and Spanish made the protection of His Majesty’s Army less and fewer necessary.
The main political arguments of the Puritans were the Indians, the Negro Slavery, the territories of the West and of course the taxes.
The Crown pursued a policy of settling with the Indians. These were useful as allies in the wars fought against the French to overthrow them from the Great Lakes.
The Puritans instead argued that it was better to exterminated the Indians, as they had immediately begun to do.
The Puritans soon realized that black slaves did not serve their economy; In fact, they were in the way. They knew that they were fundamental to the southern Landis and took this attitude: on the one hand they concretely supported them in asking the crown for permission to keep the slaves in the American colonies, on the other they maintained in New England a Fronde Anti-slavery, giving space in the newspapers and the Parliament to the few sincere antischiavists who were there.
From 1689 to 1763 France and Great Britain fought almost continuously. Matter of contention was the control of the east market.
The taxes were always too many and always unjustified for the Puritans. They served the crown to cover the expenses of administration of the colonies, for their defense, and to finance the wars.
In the southern colonies the majority of white people cared little about politics, but if anything saw nothing but disadvantages from independence. In New England only the great merchants, financiers and entrepreneurs would have drawn tangible and immediate benefits from independence, which would have meant their own self-government.
The breakthrough occurred at the end of the Seven Years ‘ War (1756-1763). This war saw opposite Great Britain and Prussia and the other France, Spain, Austria and Russia. It was the final showdown to establish the control of much of the East market.
Great Britain won the war and the conditions of peace were laid down by the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, which also established the fortunes of the North American possessions of the defeated.
The outcome of the war, though so favourable, would have cost Britain its 13 American colonies. In fact, it provided a tremendous impulse to the puritan cause of independence.
In North America there was no longer the dreaded France, and the power of Spain had long been declining, so the presence of the British Army was no longer necessary.
The fact that now Great Britain, after freeing North America from the French, however blocked the expansion west to its American colonies (with the excuse of reserving Territories to the Indians) the Great Puritan merchants, wanted to say that the crown meant Leave the Eastern market at the East India Company, forever blocking the road to the Pacific to the American colonies.
This was ultimately the real great reason for the American War of Independence: the East market.

Finally the taxes: Great Britain had to recover the expenses incurred in the war in America.
In 1764 the Sugar Act and the Currency Act were introduced, in 1765 the Stamp Act and the Quartering Act, in 1767 the Townshend Act.
The New England Parliaments were in the front row in expressing the protests of the colonies, and their ability consisted in inducing the British government to gradually shift taxation to consumer goods, which affected the poor and average class…
The Puritans ‘ cause was beginning to take hold even in the low strata of the population.
The great merchants of Massachusetts decided to push on the accelerator and charged their media (journalists, intellectuals, priests from the pulpit) to keep alive the controversy with the motherland. In This climate, accidents began to be created…
In May 1773, some merchant of the East India Company carrying tea was repelled in the ports of Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In October another merchant ship was set on fire in Annapolis. Finally, on December 16 of 1773 there was the episode of the Boston Tea Party, a group of men disguised as Indians spilled the tea load of a ship to the quay in the water.
King George III was furious with Massachusetts and ordered the closure of the Boston harbor until the damage was repaid, so he removed many self-governing powers from Massachusetts.
Massachusetts then summoned all the colonial parliaments for a meeting held in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774. It was the so-called First Continental Congress.
The colonies still met in Philadelphia during the Second Continental Congress.
After months of discussion, the separatist minority, whose leaders were the big Puritan merchants John Adams, Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and the big planters of the south, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, managed to convince The Assembly to decide for the definitive separation from England.
In the end, the Puritans had succeeded in their intent: on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of independence was enunfated, although more than a third of the colonial population was opposed.
The real motive of the rebellion was the market of the Orient. For that it was necessary to have the fur of Canada.
Britain would win the war but what was really pressing them in America was only the area of the Great Lakes and block as far as possible the expansion to the Pacific to the Puritans.
Britain recognized the independence of the 13 colonies, and also placed the Ohio Territory at their disposal, but retained ownership of Canada, which was called British North America (B.N.A.), drawing its borders to the south in order to understand the area at Northeast of the Great Lakes, the fur zone.
The Declaration of Independence
The signatories of the Declaration offer the exact framework of the American revolutionary Elite: 10 very rich New England merchants; 11 great landowners of the southern slave traders; 12 lawyers; 13 judges; 4 physicians; and therefore an agricultural factor, a publisher-writer, a Protestant pastor, a politician, a military and a blacksmith.
Their intent was the everlasting of the Puritans: No matter how wealthy, it was necessary to have the freedom to try to enrich themselves more.
For the purpose the English monarchy was no longer good. The self-government of wealthy entrepreneurs was needed; It was necessary to establish a merchant oligarchy. And that says the American Declaration of Independence. That “people” to whom it attributes the right of self-government is nothing more than the electoral body that already elected the colonial parliaments, which due to the minimum wealth requirements required for the vote was the richest part of the population, 15-25% of the total to Depending on the colony.
Their leader was Thomas Jefferson, who, like George Mason, was a wealthy Virginia landowner who used to employ thousands of slaves.
The American Declaration of Independence, and the state rhetoric that has always shrouded it, has deceived many people.
The slogan of the case was the principle of the self-determination of peoples. But it was just a slogan to cover the sights of the East market. In fact the Americans never recognized that principle to anyone else, when not economically convenient.
Winning the war for independence the 13 colonies had become 13 independent states. They were both in the respect of England and one in regards to the other.
The economy of New England was of a highly mercantile type, that of the southern agricultural in an extensive way. In the North predominated the Puritans, in the south there was a large majority of former members of the Church of England.
With a procedure initiated in 1777 between the various legislatures and concluded in 1781, the 13 states officially met in a federation, always called the United States of America and governed by the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The states, thus, were always in dispute with one another, generally for reasons of trade.
Thus in 1787 the 13 states agreed to amend this Statute and the result was a solemn constitution drafted in Philadelphia by 55 delegates assembled in the assembly with the presidency of George Washington.
Every once in a while, modifications, punctuations or updates were made, called amendments.
These amendments become an integral part of the Constitution: the first ten, approved in block in 1791, are called the Bill of Rights.
The Constitution of the United States is not the constitution of a state, but of a federation of States, each of which has its own constitution.
Even today each of the 50 states of the Federation has its own constitution.
At the time of the adoption of the Federal Constitution these states were all oligarchies based on wealth, working with a Republican political system and a liberalist economic system. Everyone in their constitutions envisaged minimum wealth requirements to be able to vote, which were roughly those already seen.
The federal Constitution does nothing but crystallize such a system in the States, to prevent it from evolving in the future in that sense which is now called “democratic” (the word “democracy” is never mentioned in the Constitution, nor had it been in Declaration of Independence).
There are many facilities for the merchant class secured in the Constitution: prohibition to impose taxes on exported goods (ART. I, sez. 9, par. c); The prohibition for a state to diminish the value of the debts contracted (ART. I, sez. 10, par. a); Prohibition of placing tariff barriers on goods from other states (Art. I, sez. 10, par. b); The ban on putting federal income taxes, but only per capita (Art. I, sez. 9, par. D). Benjamin Franklin, who was also a writer and inventor, took advantage to make him recognize (Art. I, sez. 8, par. h) Copyrights and patents.
The prohibition to impose federal taxes on incomes resisted for 126 years, namely until 1913, when already for decades were formed colossal monopolies possessed by one individual person (the various Carnegie, Colgate, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Schiff, Morgan etc., for Most of their lives never paid a dollar for income tax.
Still today, some states do not have state tax on incomes but only excise taxes, indirect tax on the sold (a kind of VAT; but they are low, average 7%).
The United States had become a frightening plutocracy: the economy was dominated by private individuals, holders of the enormous monopolies formed during the years at the turn of the century in all sectors (steel, oil, food, pharmaceuticals, etc.) except In the Post Office, reserved by the Constitution to the federal government.
According to Charles Austin Beard (1874-1948), the greatest American historian of all time: the movement for the Constitution of the United States was originated and carried out mainly by four groups of corporated interests which had been damaged by the articles Of the Confederation: Money, Public securities, manufacturers, trade and naval armatures.
The Constitution of 1787-which the multinationals gave the way-is an antidemocratic document produced by a few dozen carriers of large corporate interests and already multinational.

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