I am not referring to the official propaganda, in which the Myflower Galone sailed on September 6, 1620 from England, with on board 100 or 101 or 102 (depending on the versions) Pilgrim Fathers, Pilgrims fathers, would have arrived in the new continent after two months of navigation. I mean the true story, unknown to the Americans themselves, that helps to understand the past and present of the American colonial empire, dedicated to liberalising the world’s markets, to grabbing and conquering resources from other countries, invading sovereign States for Export democracy.
It is necessary to make a jump in the past starting from the Middle Ages.
The European Middle Ages
The Romans saw society in terms of collective; Each of them felt a part of the whole. Hence the State organization that gave itself, highly collectivist, bureaucratized, militarized. At the top of the organization was not a parliament, but a lonely man. The decisions taken by the parliaments are the result of compromises and mediations between different interests.
The Roman Empire discouraged private initiative, because everything was governed by the State! In particular, the Empire cancelled almost entirely the private commercial trades, both on land and by sea and the figure of the trader was always poorly tolerated even in the Republican Rome, became increasingly rare throughout the empire, until it disappeared almost Totally.
The way of interpreting human relationships in term of collective was one of the keys to the resounding success of Rome: the creation of the only world empire of history.
The other key was their underlying atheism, in spite of their complicated religious scaffolding. This did not prevent the Romans from adopting the Christian religion, even if not in its entirety.
This religion is based on the entire Bible, which contains two parts, the old and the New Testament, which exhibit a theoretic that lends itself to be a rationalizing ideology-justicator for an individualistic vision, respectively (old Testament) is a collectivistic (New Testament) of life and human relations.
They did not like, however, to the Romans the Hebrew scriptures, among other things, the conception of the chosen people scolded against their perception of unity of mankind, their universalism.
In order to be accepted by the Empire, the Christian religion, while maintaining it nominally in its doctrinaire body, at the practical act abandoned all references to the Old Testament and became the Catholic religion in the western part of the Empire and, Later, the Greek Orthodox religion in the eastern one.
Fallen in 476 the Empire of the West, began for Europe the so-called period of the Middle Ages: a period of total cultural continuity with the past. There was no longer a central political authority, partially replaced by the Church of Rome, but from the point of view of everyday life things changed very little.
The feudal logic of the time adapted enough to their conception: the earth was of God, and therefore of all; For practical needs, the Church, the representative of God, entrusted the administration to the nobles, who were thus superintending the activity of all others, who were considered equal, all-who are the least-“serfs”.
Emblematic is the medieval theory of the right price, which was the maximum price that could be sold a commodity, calculated based on the contents of raw materials, workmanship and final quality.
The private trades, thus, continued to the usual minimum levels of the time of the Empire, whereas the interregional and international ones, then managed by the central authority, had ceased or become sporadic.
With the Crusades begins the end of the Middle Ages. The Crusades were eight, the first in 1096 and the last in 1270. They had the effect of bringing Europeans into contact for centuries ever so deep with the Arab world, its goods, its superior culture and its superior scientific and technological knowledge, thus starting a chain of events that would change the face Only of Europe, but of the whole world. The first private businesses began, by sea and by land, to bring the news of the Orient to Europe. Arose the first warehouses, import-export companies, and with these, of course, the first traders and entrepreneurs.
Through the Arabs arrived in Europe some Chinese inventions of great importance: the gunpowder, the optical lenses and the mobile printing characters, used in China about from the year 700.
In the following two centuries the consequences of those premises developed: trade grew exponentially, especially in the areas of northern Europe, the least influenced by the Roman mentality. He greatly increased the circulation of money, and of all those instruments to facilitate it, such as letters of credit, bills of exchange, bank transactions. For the year 1500 in England the secular system of bartering had been completely replaced by the use of money; Wages and salaries were also paid in money. Consequently, traders and entrepreneurs increased, around which a category of collateral characters were formed-lawyers, accountants, notary public, architects, etc. The bourgeoisie was being born.
The development of trades created a strong demand for order, transport security, uniformity of laws and regulations.
The discovery of the cannon, an expensive weapon, was, however, strengthening the monarchies. The refinement of the print-characters terminated by Gutenberg to the 1450 allowed the diffusion of many books in Latin.
Thanks to the combined effect of the development of trade, the strengthening of monarchies and the imposing of local languages, the various former provinces of the empire began to feel autonomous entities from every point of view, economic, political, cultural and They began to originate the European nation states, the first of which were the monarchies of Portugal, Spain, France and England.